Review Category : Health

Losing One’s Virginity Not Too Traumatic Anymore

Digital Vision/Thinkstock(NORMAL, Ill.) — Many adults who can recall their first time having sex probably would just as soon like to forget it. However, things have changed over time, and it seems that the younger generations have fonder memories about losing their virginity than the older crowd.

Illinois State University researchers conducted a survey of 5,000 people over a 23-year period about their first time, which stretched back to 1980.

Based on their results, the experience of losing one’s virginity improved over the years for both sexes. That is, men experience less performance anxiety now while women feel less guilt about having sex for the first time.

As for what’s different, the researchers speculated that losing one’s virginity has become less of a rite of passage for males, while first-timers seem more likely to be in a relationship longer before they “do it,” thus increasing the intimacy that women value more than men.

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A Grunt Is No Stunt on the Tennis Court

Ronald Martinez/Getty Images(LINCOLN, Neb.) — Does grunting serve a purpose on the tennis court other than to psych out one’s opponent?

Maria Sharapova is one of the loudest grunters in the game, making guttural sounds described as loud as a chain saw. Granted, she is one of the hardest hitters in tennis, but Sharapova also seems to be helping her serve by grunting, a University of Nebraska study speculates.

In fact, when players on the University of Nebraska college tennis team grunted, scientists discovered the ball speed picked up by 3.8 percent. They explained the upper body becomes more stable during grunts, which enables a player to transfer more power to the arm.

The extra velocity is particularly helpful because it gives opponents less time to set up their return shots.

The researchers also noted that improvement was almost instantaneous when grunting was added to the college players’ game, suggesting that people with lesser tennis skills might also benefit from a loud grunt.
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Most Adults Finish Most of What’s on Their Plates

iStock/Thinkstock(ITHACA, N.Y.) — All those lectures about finishing your dinner because there are kids starving somewhere else evidently sunk in as most adults apparently finish what’s on their plates.

And it’s not just Americans who are polishing off their plates of food. People in other countries also belong to what Cornell University researchers are branding the Clean Plate Club.

Study co-authors Brian Wansink and Katherine Abowd Johnson says that in their survey of diners from the U.S., Canada, France, Taiwan, Korea, Finland, and the Netherlands, the average adult will consume about 92 percent of what’s on their plate.

Johnson explains, “Part of why we finish most of what we serve is because we are aware enough to know how much we’ll want in the first place.”

However, before we start patting ourselves on the backs for not wasting food, the same doesn’t hold true for those under 18.

In an accompanying study, Wansink and Johnson found out that younger eaters only managed to finish 59 percent of what’s on their plate, mostly because they’re unfamiliar with some of the food.

If there’s any consolation to parents, according to the researchers, it’s that it seems to be a universal thing among younger children and adolescents.

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Teens Report Higher Use of Human Growth Hormones, Study Says

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — More teens are looking to drugs to improve athletic performance and their appearance, according to a new national survey from the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids released Tuesday.

The organization reported a significant increase in the lifetime use of synthetic growth hormones, or hGH, among teens.

Eleven percent of respondents in ninth through twelvth grades said they used hGH without a prescription, more than double the amount from 2012.

Researchers say the findings reinforce the need for tighter regulation and more accurate labeling of “fitness-enhancing” over-the-counter products.

While synthetic human growth hormones have been available since 1985, Congress gave the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services the authority to approve its medical uses, and also banned any off-label uses.

hGH is approved for adult short bowel syndrome and long-term treatment of short stature in children and adolescents, among other conditions. Still, it is illegally used for muscle building and other athletic performance enhancements.

The study also found that African-American and Hispanic teens are more likely to report use of synthetic hGH, with 15 percent of African-Americans saying they used it at least once in their lifetime and 13 percent of Hispanic teens reporting, compared to 9 percent of Caucasians.

In addition to hormones, the report discovered other trends in teen use, including marijuana (44 percent) and prescription medication (23 percent).

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Teens Report Higher Use of Human Growth Hormones, Study Says

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — More teens are looking to drugs to improve athletic performance and their appearance, according to a new national survey from the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids released Tuesday.

The organization reported a significant increase in the lifetime use of synthetic growth hormones, or hGH, among teens.

Eleven percent of respondents in ninth through twelvth grades said they used hGH without a prescription, more than double the amount from 2012.

Researchers say the findings reinforce the need for tighter regulation and more accurate labeling of “fitness-enhancing” over-the-counter products.

While synthetic human growth hormones have been available since 1985, Congress gave the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services the authority to approve its medical uses, and also banned any off-label uses.

hGH is approved for adult short bowel syndrome and long-term treatment of short stature in children and adolescents, among other conditions. Still, it is illegally used for muscle building and other athletic performance enhancements.

The study also found that African-American and Hispanic teens are more likely to report use of synthetic hGH, with 15 percent of African-Americans saying they used it at least once in their lifetime and 13 percent of Hispanic teens reporting, compared to 9 percent of Caucasians.

In addition to hormones, the report discovered other trends in teen use, including marijuana (44 percent) and prescription medication (23 percent).

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Teens Report Higher Use of Human Growth Hormones, Study Says

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — More teens are looking to drugs to improve athletic performance and their appearance, according to a new national survey from the Partnership for Drug-Free Kids released Tuesday.

The organization reported a significant increase in the lifetime use of synthetic growth hormones, or hGH, among teens.

Eleven percent of respondents in ninth through twelvth grades said they used hGH without a prescription, more than double the amount from 2012.

Researchers say the findings reinforce the need for tighter regulation and more accurate labeling of “fitness-enhancing” over-the-counter products.

While synthetic human growth hormones have been available since 1985, Congress gave the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services the authority to approve its medical uses, and also banned any off-label uses.

hGH is approved for adult short bowel syndrome and long-term treatment of short stature in children and adolescents, among other conditions. Still, it is illegally used for muscle building and other athletic performance enhancements.

The study also found that African-American and Hispanic teens are more likely to report use of synthetic hGH, with 15 percent of African-Americans saying they used it at least once in their lifetime and 13 percent of Hispanic teens reporting, compared to 9 percent of Caucasians.

In addition to hormones, the report discovered other trends in teen use, including marijuana (44 percent) and prescription medication (23 percent).

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Website ‘Wevorce’ Attempts to Ease Divorce Process

iStock/Thinkstock(SAN FRANCISCO) — Divorce can be a difficult process. It’s expensive, emotional and can result in years in court. But now, a new website trying to make the transition just a little bit easier.

Wevorce, a San Francisco-based company, uses computer software to connect couples looking to uncouple with lawyers located across the West Coast. While they can’t save your marriage, they can save you time and money.

“The technology allows us, as we continue to build, to make it more and more affordable for families,” Michelle Crosby, the founder and CEO of Wevorce, told ABC News. “We let families go at their own pace.”

While a divorce involving lawyers can cost upwards of $15,000 to $30,000 or more, Wevorce says their average price is about $5,000, and start as low as $1,800.

And it’s not just money. Wevorce also offers counseling and mediation.

“Because of the stressors of divorce, we will always have people available,” said Crosby.

Married for 15 years, Mark Kormylo and Nora Gibson, of Boise, Idaho, say they’d seen enough of their friends go through nasty divorces.

“We had both heard horror stories of screaming across atorney’s tables and this seemed like a much more cordial way to end our marriage,” Kormylo explained.

Therefore, two years ago, they decided to use Wevorce to try to keep the peace, not just for them, but also for their 12-year-old son.

“These guys wanted us to get along in a way that was really healing to everybody in the family, so that we could move on to our next chapter,” said Gibson.

Still, some experts say Wevorce is not for everyone.

“If we have a couple who fight like cats and dogs, then I would strong caution against going the Wevorce route,” Carrozza explained. “They will abandon that process, they’ll each hire their own attorney and it could end up costing them twice as much.”

But for Kormylo and Gibson, they say they have no remorse for their Wevorce.

“I think it would have been drastically different had we gone the traditional route,” said Kormylo. “I’m thankful that we didn’t.”

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Five Things that Make You a Mosquito Magnet

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Hot and humid summers mean mosquitoes. And the annoying insects spread more than just itchy welts — they can transmit painful and sometimes deadly diseases.

At least 497 people in the continental U.S. as well as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands have contracted the chikungunya virus so far this year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention — 140 of them in the past week alone.

For most of us, mosquito bites are just a nuisance. And some people have it worse than others.

What makes a person end up as a mosquito magnet? Read on to learn how some seemingly harmless habits, like a daily run or a backyard beer, could make you a more appetizing target:

Carbon Dioxide

It turns out that mosquitoes don’t bite randomly. Instead, they hone in on a victim by following a steady output of carbon dioxide.

Richard Pollack, an instructor at the Harvard school of public health and adviser to the Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources, said mosquitoes are adept at figuring out where their target is by following these exhaled trails.

“If you were to exercise vigorously, you would produce more carbon dioxide for a brief period,” Pollack told ABC News. “You might [then] perhaps be a little more attractive to mosquitoes.”

Unfortunately, there’s no good way to cut down on carbon dioxide aside from holding your breath, Pollack said. So if you’re getting bitten, you might want to head inside.

Heat

While carbon dioxide is how mosquitoes lock onto you as a target, heat may be how they figure out where to bite you.

Dr. Jonathan Day, a professor of medical entomology at the University of Florida, said that before mosquitoes can take a bite they have to find an area of the body where the blood is close to the surface. Common areas include the forehead, wrists, elbows and neck.

However, people who are over heated or who just finished working out will have blood closer to the surface of the skin throughout their body.

“They use the heat to very quickly to determine where blood is closest to the surface,” said Day.

Your Outfit

If you’re heading to a picnic and looking to avoid becoming a mosquito’s meal, Day recommends avoiding any dark denim or all-black outfits.

“If you dress in dark colors you stand out against the horizon and mosquitoes [can see you],” said Day.

Day said some mosquitoes are visual hunters that search you out by looking for signs of life against the horizon. Movement can also draw the insects in, so hikers on the move should wear plenty of bug-repellent, he said.

Backyard Beers

A bottle of beer could make you a target for mosquitoes, a 2002 study found.

Researchers examined 13 brave volunteers exposed to mosquitoes before and after having a beer. The biting insects were much more interested in getting a meal after volunteers drank a single bottle of beer, according to the study.

Exhaled Chemicals

In addition to heat and carbon dioxide, mosquitoes are also attracted to naturally-occurring chemicals that are released as people breathe.

Day said carbon dioxide and heat will draw the mosquitoes to a crowd, but these chemicals, called secondary attractants, can lure the insects to one unlucky person at a barbecue.

The chemicals vary, but one is related to estrogen, which Day said could be the reason women are often bitten by mosquitoes.

How to Stop Mosquito Bites

Mosquitoes may be mean, biting machines, but there are steps you can take to protect yourself. Aside from wearing lighter colors and avoiding the outdoors at dawn and dusk, the CDC recommends the following tips to prevent bites:

  • Use insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin or IR3535. Some oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol products also provide protection.
  • Wear long sleeves, long pants and socks when outdoors and avoid outdoor activities between dusk and dawn — peak mosquito biting hours.
  • Mosquito-proof your home with screens and regularly remove standing water from birdbaths, gutters, pool covers and pet water dishes.

Pollack has one more recommendation: fans. The low-tech gadgets can break up carbon dioxide and throw mosquitoes off course. Since the insects are weak flyers, a strong breeze can render them unable to land.

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Sleep Isn’t What It Used to Be, Study Finds

Wavebreak Media/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Though closing our eyes and drifting off into unconsciousness is one of the simplest tasks we perform each day, scientists are still trying to unravel why we sleep — and how we can do it better.

“For sure, it is tempting to decrease the amount of sleep (maybe along with an improved intensity of sleep) with the idea to increase the efficacy of our life,” Dr. Christoph Nissen, a sleep researcher at University Medical Center Freiburg in Germany told ABC News in an email.

Humans need an average of seven and a half hours of sleep per night, but some only need five hours and some need as many as 10 hours, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Though we understand sleep is vital to things from mood and memory to metabolic functioning and immune systems, it’s still not completely understood, and solving sleep disorders is critical, Nissen said.

Between artificial light, devices that keep us connected 24/7 and modern day societal demands, sleep isn’t what it used to be, researchers have claimed. So Nissen embarked on a study, which aired on German television, to see how five healthy adults would sleep in a Stone Age-like settlement.

The participants spent eight weeks in a settlement in Southern Germany, living in huts built on stilts with no electricity, running water or modern day conveniences like phones, according to the study. They gathered their own food each day and returned to their beds made of brushwood and furs each night. There were no torches or candles in the huts.

Nissen and his fellow researchers used sleep-tracking armbands to learn that the participants slept an average of 1.8 hours more each night than they did before going to the settlement.

“As a whole, these observations provide some experimental support for the long-held notion that people under prehistoric living conditions experienced prolonged sleep times compared to people under modern living conditions,” they wrote in the study, published in the latest issue of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Though not exactly prehistoric, electricity pioneer Benjamin Franklin slept regularly from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m. each night, Mason Currey wrote in his book, Daily Rituals. (Franklin also enjoyed an “air bath” when he woke up each morning, in which he sat in his room naked for up to an hour, Currey said.)

But without electricity to provide artificial light, maybe it was easier for Franklin to live by his motto, “Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.”

After all, Thomas Edison wouldn’t patent the first practical light bulb until 1880.

Currey scoured biographies, interviews and other records to find out about the habits of some of the most influential minds throughout history, and said the most interesting sleep schedule belonged to Buckminster Fuller, an American architect, inventor and author.

In the 1930s, Fuller decided a normal night of sleep wasn’t working for him, so he decided to train himself to sleep only in 30-minute increments.

“He decided that normal human sleep patterns may no longer be practical for modern lifestyles,” Currey said. “He decided he could train himself to sleep less and have vastly more time to do work.”

So Fuller experimented with a concept he called “high frequency sleep,” in which he would work until he started to feel sleepy — about six hours — and then cat nap for about 30 minutes, Currey said. He would do this around the clock without ever stopping for a longer rest.

“The other funny thing is he apparently got so good at this he could go to sleep instantly,” Currey said. “People in the room with him would be sort of freaked out he had an off switch in his head.”

Of course, he eventually stopped doing it because his wife complained.

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Which Diet Gives the Best Bang for Your Buck?

Photodisc/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Need some help losing weight? The diet program Weight Watchers and the weight loss drug Qsymia may provide the best bang for your buck, a new study found.

Researchers from Duke University compared the costs and effectiveness of three diet programs and three weight loss medications and found that Weight Watchers came out on top, with a price tag of $155 per kilogram lost.

“[Weight Watchers is] a program that holds you accountable,” said ABC News senior medical contributor Dr. Jennifer Ashton. “Whether through their meal plans or through their meetings, this helps you stay on track.”

The average annual cost of Weight Watchers was $377, according to the study. Users lost an average of 2.4 kilograms or 5.3 pounds.

“It’s about restricting portion size,” Ashton said of the point system-based program. “It’s not about depriving you of food. That’s key.”

Qsymia was a close second, clocking in at $204 per kilo, according to the study. Ashton said some of her patients have had impressive results with the drug.

“They were obese to morbidly obese, and most lost significant weight,” she said.

Also included in the study were the weight loss drugs Vtrim at $213 per kilo, Lorcaserin at $545 per kilo, and Orlistat at $546 per kilo, as well as the diet program Jenny Craig, with an average cost effectiveness ranging from $338 to $424 per kilo, depending on the amount of food purchased.

But the price of dieting isn’t the only cost to consider, Ashton said, citing the emotional, psychological and social costs of obesity, which affects one in three American adults.

“We need to look at the big picture when we think as a nation of how to deal with the issue of obesity,” she said.

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