Review Category : Health

More Children Injured Over Lax Fireworks Laws, Researchers Say

iStock/Thinkstock(BALTIMORE) — Are lax fireworks laws causing more injuries for children?

Changes to U.S. fireworks laws have made it easier for younger children to purchase fireworks. A new study, presented at the 2016 Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in Baltimore, had researchers examine the effects these changes have had on injuries in children.

Looking at a nationwide data sample from 2006-2012, researchers found that the number of child injuries requiring medical attention increased modestly. However, the number of injuries serious enough to require admission to the hospital as opposed to just being managed in the emergency department increased substantially, from 28.9 percent in 2006 to 50 percent in 2012.

Additionally, the mean length of hospital stay increased from 3.12 days in 2006 to 7.35 days in 2012 and the mean age of the children sustaining fireworks injuries went down from 12.1 years in 2006 to 11.4 years old in 2012.

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Taxis Not Meeting Safety Standards for Children, Researchers Say

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Are taxis safe enough for children?

Researchers presenting at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting found that a majority of children are not properly restrained in taxis, even though motor vehicle collisions are the number one cause of death among children in the United States.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends child safety seats or belt positioning booster seats until a child attains a height of 4 foot 9 inches, a standard enforced by law in all states. Taxis are notably exempt from these regulations, however.

Researchers stationed at 11 locations in the New York metro area observed that only 11 percent of small children were properly restrained, with most of these being infants in infant carriers. A survey of taxi companies in the area (researchers placing anonymous calls to companies) showed that only 39 percent reported having child safety seats available for riders. Most cited health code restrictions, allergies and hygiene for not providing these seats.

The researchers said they worry that the millions of city children who are riding unrestrained in taxis are at additional risk for significant injury or death. The group called upon new laws and regulations to protect our smallest passengers.

The study, not yet published in a peer-reviewed journal, was observational and researchers recorded people getting into and out of cabs. Researchers observed 609 taxis and evaluated 116 children, meaning the results cannot necessarily be generalized.

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Rare Elizabethkingia Bacterial Infection in Newborn Could Shed Light on Outbreak Mystery

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Wisconsin health officials are investigating if a suspected case of the rare bacterial infection called Elizabethkingia at a children’s hospital could be related to an ongoing outbreak that has infected at least 61 people in three states.

The newest suspected case at the Wisconsin Children’s Hospital was diagnosed in an infant in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, according to hospital officials. The bacterial infection has infected 59 people from Wisconsin alone, of which 18 people have died, according to health officials. Two other fatal cases were reported in Michigan and Illinois, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A sample from the infected patient has been sent to the state health department to determine whether this is the same strain of the virus that has infected dozens of others.

“There is no indication of serious infection in that child and the patient’s family is aware,” hospitals officials said in a statement on Thursday. “A sample of the organism has been provided to the State Health Department and CDC.”

Elizabethkingia results from bacteria that is naturally occurring in soil, river water and reservoirs, and normally affects those with compromised immune systems. There are different strains of the bacteria, which can cause meningitis in infants and respiratory infections in people with compromised immune systems.

Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University, said it’s unusual that disease detectives at the CDC and local health departments have been unable to locate the source of the outbreak.

“It frustrates them and surprises us all,” Schaffner told ABC News. “It’s such a distinctive organism. … This is a much larger challenge than first was assumed.”

Past outbreaks have been linked to people with compromised immune systems being exposed in a health care center through an infected piece of equipment, Schaffner said, but so far there’s no indication that is what happened in this outbreak.

If the infant has the same strain as the other people in the outbreak, it may help investigators crack the source of the bacteria, Schaffner said. Genetic testing of the bacteria will allow investigators to determine if it’s related to the same disease strain that infected others in the outbreak.

“That, from the point of view of the investigation, could be an enormous gift,” he said. “The infant’s environment is extremely circumscribed and investigators can go and work with that family to literally, hour-by-hour, go over that infant’s activities and life.”

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Depression in Old Age May Be Linked to Dementia, Study Finds

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The reasons some people are more at risk for developing dementia came into clearer focus today thanks to a new study that suggests a link between depression and dementia.

Researchers from Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands found that older people who developed increasingly worse depression were more likely to develop dementia, according to a study published today in the Lancet medical journal.

Researchers examined 3,325 people older than 55, who had been followed as part of a population study since 1990. They measured the level of depressive symptoms and then checked to see whether those with signs of depression went on to develop dementia. They found that 21 percent of people whose depressive symptoms increased over time ended up being diagnosed with dementia. By comparison, only 10 percent of people with “low symptoms of depression” developed dementia.

The researchers explained that signs of depression may be an early signal that dementia is developing in the brain before the telltale signs of memory loss appear later on. They point out previous studies have suggested psychological changes can lead to depression, including one study that found that atrophy of the brain may trigger depression.

Additionally, inflammation in the brain is seen in episodes of depression and cognitive decline and may also be key to understanding this link.

“Depressive symptoms that gradually increase over time appear to better predict dementia later in life than other trajectories of depressive symptoms …,” said Dr. M. Arfan Ikram, co-author of the study and epidemiologist at the Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, in a statement today. “There are a number of potential explanations, including that depression and dementia may both be symptoms of a common underlying cause, or that increasing depressive symptoms are on the starting end of a dementia continuum in older adults.”

Ikram said there should be more studies to fully understand the association.

In a published comment accompanying the study, Dr. Simone Reppermund of the Department of Developmental Disability and Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, said research still needed to be done to understand the “underlying mechanisms” of depression and dementia.

“The questions are if, and how, the presence of depression modifies the risk for dementia,” Reppermund said. “The study … provides an answer to the first question: Depression, especially steadily increasing depressive symptoms, seems to increase the risk for dementia. However, the question of how the presence of depressive symptoms modifies the risk of dementia still remains.”

Experts said the study joins a growing body of evidence finding that depression and dementia seem to have some overlapping aspects.

Dr. Philipp Dines of the Geriatric Psychiatry Department at University Hospitals in Cleveland said the study highlights how complex dementia symptoms can be and how they affect so much more than just cognition.

“It shows that these neurocognitive degenerative illnesses are complex entities that involve multiple aspects of brain function,” Dines said. “It’s not just cognitive pieces, it also affects the whole make up of who we are.”

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First US Zika Virus-Related Death Reported in Puerto Rico

iStock/Thinkstock(SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico) — The first U.S. death related to the Zika virus was reported Friday by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A patient infected with the virus developed a severe blood-clotting disease called thrombocytopenia that lead to his death, according to the CDC. The disease is characterized by low platelet counts in the blood, which can lead to difficulty clotting.

There have been at least 683 confirmed cases of the Zika virus in Puerto Rico, where the virus is being transmitted from insects to people, according to the CDC.

The vast majority reported mild symptoms, including fever, headache and rash. A total of 49 pregnant women were found to be infected with the virus.

Sixteen patients needed hospitalization after the infection, including six who had a paralysis syndrome called Guillain-Barre, which officials are investigating to see if it is linked to the virus, the CDC said.

Common symptoms of the Zika virus include fever, rash, joint pain and conjunctivitis, according to the CDC. Approximately one in five people infected with the virus shows symptoms. Severe complications from the virus that require hospitalization are rare and most people are over the worst of the symptoms after a week, according to the CDC.

To stem the outbreak, the CDC reported that it has enhanced surveillance systems to monitor the virus and increased activities to protect pregnant women from being infected. Health officials are also spraying both indoors and outdoors in an effort to stop mosquitoes from infecting pregnant women.

The virus has also been associated with a rise of microcephaly birth defect cases. The birth defect is characterized by a malformed or smaller head and brain and can result in serious developmental delays.

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US Cases of Zika Virus Top 400

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The Zika virus continues to spread throughout the Western Hemisphere, including in wide swaths of Central and South America. Concerns are growing for pregnant women because the mosquito-borne virus has been shown to cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, characterized by an abnormally small head and brain.

Here are the latest updates about the outbreak, which the World Health Organization has deemed a “global health emergency.”

Puerto Rico Faces Growing Number of Zika Cases

At least 474 people in Puerto Rico have already been diagnosed with Zika as officials race to curb the outbreak. The virus has already been transmitted from mosquitoes to people on the island, unlike in the continental U.S., where no cases have been contracted from an insect.

This week the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services said they have awarded $5 million to 20 health centers in the area to help with family planning, contraception and outreach to those most at risk for negative consequence of contracting a Zika infection.

“In Puerto Rico, and around the world, the Zika virus is a serious and challenging health threat,” Secretary of HHS, Sylvia M. Burwell, said in a statement on Tuesday. “We are committed to doing everything we can to combat this threat and to help strengthen health care in Puerto Rico.”

First Commercial Zika Test is Approved by FDA

Quest Diagnostics announced today they have received emergency authorization by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to sell the first commercially available diagnostic test for Zika directly to health care providers. Currently, doctors must coordinate with their state and local health department if they want to test a patient for the virus.

Quest Diagnostics plans to make the new test broadly available to physicians for patient testing, including in Puerto Rico, early next week.

Zika Cases in the US Top 400

At least 426 people have been diagnose with Zika in the 50 U.S. states since the outbreak was first detected late last year. Of those who have been diagnosed 36 were pregnant women.
All except eight cases were contracted from a person traveling abroad. The eight other cases were sexually transmitted. The virus has not yet been spread in the US through mosquitoes.

In U.S. territories, outside the 50 states, the number of those infected is far higher at 599 people. Among those infected were 59 pregnant women.

South Korea Creates Olympic Outfits that Protect Athletes from Mosquitoes

The South Korean Olympic athletes will have a unique way of avoiding mosquitoes at the summer Olympics in Brazil, thanks to new “Zika-proof” uniforms.

Unveiled this week, the uniforms contain mosquito-repellent to keep athletes safe from mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, according to the Associated Press.

The outfits also feature long pants and sleeves to keep athletes covered during the opening ceremony. Due to strict restrictions, the Korean Olympic Committee could not make similar changes for uniforms worn during competition, according to the AP, but athletes will be able to wear spray insect repellent.

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Your Body: The Link Between Your Birth Month and Allergies

iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Could the season in which your child is born determine whether he or she will suffer from allergies later in life?

A new study published in the journal Allergies suggests that babies who are born in the fall have an increased risk of developing eczema, and those born in the fall and winter are more prone to asthma.

The researchers found that the allergies did not just occur in childhood. They followed babies until they grew up and noticed that birth season had an affect throughout life.

Despite the link found between birth month and allergies, the researchers are not advocating that parents plan the timing of their pregnancy around it.

Here’s my take: Since many of us suffer from allergies, the key is prevention and treatment. Reducing our exposure in our environment as much as possible and treating symptoms with multiple types of allergy medications can be incredibly helpful.

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Author’s Proposed ‘Meternity’ Leave from Work Sparks Backlash

iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — An author’s suggestion that all women would benefit from “meternity” leave that would give them time to step away from their jobs has sparked controversy.

Meghann Foye is the author of Meternity, a new novel in which an overworked editor fakes her own pregnancy in order to get paid time off — a “meternity” leave.

In her own life, Foye, 38, also worked as a magazine editor and has said she felt jealous of parents who left the office to pick up their kids. Foye revealed she once declared to a pregnant friend that she needed her own maternity leave.

“Of course, that didn’t happen,” Foye wrote in an article in the New York Post. “But the more I thought about it, the more I came to believe in the value of a ‘meternity’ leave — which is, to me, a sabbatical-like break that allows women and, to a lesser degree, men to shift their focus to the part of their lives that doesn’t revolve around their jobs.”

Foye continued, “And as I watched my friends take their real maternity leaves, I saw that spending three months detached from their desks made them much more sure of themselves. One friend made the decision to leave her corporate career to create her own business; another decided to switch industries. From the outside, it seemed like those few weeks of them shifting their focus to something other than their jobs gave them a whole new lens through which to see their lives.”

Foye’s proposal of a “meternity” leave has sparked backlash from moms who say maternity leave was no break for them, but a recovery from delivering a child, and then weeks and months spent devoting themselves to that child’s every need. Readers called her New York Post article “baffling” and “ridiculous.”

Foye was scheduled to appear Friday on ABC’s Good Morning America but cancelled her appearance after the backlash. Foye issued a statement through her publisher, Mira Books.

“I have tremendous respect for women who take time away from building their careers to raise their children. It’s inarguably the hardest job in the world. I’ve seen my closest friends do just that. I would never begrudge anyone who decides to start a family and takes maternity leave. And I totally get it when moms who return to work need to leave at 6: they have a second job waiting for them when they get home after working all day,” the statement read. “My concept of ‘meternity’ is designed to introduce and support the notion that all women deserve the opportunity to take stock and re-examine their goals in order to birth a life that works for them. Moms need it, and so do the rest of us who are trying to figure out the work/life balance. More than anything, all women—moms and those who aren’t—need to support each other.”

Dr. Janet Taylor, a psychiatrist and mother-of-four, said Friday on GMA that the idea of “meternity” leave is dividing.

“It minimizes the notion of stress and guilt for working moms and it also really undermines the fact that being a mother is a 24-hour, seven-day-a-week full-time commitment,” Taylor said. “We can’t belittle that because we know that our kids just don’t need us when they’re younger and they’re infants, they need us throughout their lives.”

“There is a reality about what it takes to be a mom and that means taking time off and there a number of, millions of women, who can’t even take a day off because if they take a day off they’ll lose their jobs and don’t even have maternity leave,” she added.

ABC News’ Chief Business and Economics Correspondent Rebecca Jarvis said the debate might be a reaction to trends in society and the workplace.

“People are delaying parenthood longer. The average age of a first-time mother is 26,” Jarvis said on GMA. “On top of that, companies in the great recession cut back so dramatically there are fewer people to fill that void when someone is out, whether that’s for maternity leave or, heaven forbid, sick leave, there are fewer people to cover the void in the workplace.”

“I appreciate how people who are still sitting in the workplace feel when they have to fill in for whomever that person is,” she added. “But as somebody, again, who plans to hopefully have that bond someday with my own child and plans to have children someday, I can appreciate the importance of that and that, I think, supersedes everything else.”

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Legally Blind Fifth Grader Sees Mother for First Time

iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) — Fifth grader Christopher Ward, Jr., has been legally blind all his life, but he recently got to see his mother for the first time through new electronic glasses.

The 12-year-old from Forest, Virginia, traveled up to Washington, D.C., a few weeks ago to demo a new wearable technology called eSight, according to his mother, Marquita Hackley.

eSight’s hands-free headset contains a small, high-speed camera that captures live video, which is sent to a LED screen in front of the user’s eyes, allowing them to see with “unprecedented visual clarity,” according to eSight’s website.

For Hackley, witnessing her son use the glasses and “really see for the first time in his 12 years of life” was “overwhelming and exciting.”

“The very first thing he did was turn to me and say, ‘Oh, Mommy! There you are!” Hackley, 32, told ABC News Thursday. “And then to hear him say, ‘I saw my mom, and she was very pretty,’ was so heartwarming. And aside from pretty, just the fact he could even see me meant the whole world to me.”

Ward also got to watch his favorite TV show SpongeBob, Hackley said. She explained that though her son “watches TV a little bit at home, [but] in order to see anything, he has to be directly up on the TV” and that “even then, he still can’t see all that clearly.”

Ward was born with optic nerve hypoplasia, meaning his optic nerve never fully developed before birth, Hackley said, adding that Ward “only has little light perception in his left eye and very, very low vision in his right eye.”

“Something has to be up in his face, almost touching for him to see it,” she said. “And even though Ward wears glasses on a daily basis, they’re more for protection than vision because there is a strong possibility he could lose the little sight he does have if were to get hurt or hit on the face.”

Hackley is now raising money to buy eSight for Ward, she said, explaining that the glasses cost $15,000 and her insurance doesn’t cover it.

She believes the technology could change Ward’s life and open up more opportunities, such as getting more chances to stay in regular classes and learning how to read and write print.

Currently, Ward has to use a braille reader and writer to communicate through text, Hackley said.

“Christopher is just a very loving kid, always happy and never complains about anything,” she said. “I’ll do anything to help get him what he deserves.”

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Breast Cancer Survivor Will Walk 1,000 Miles to Congress

Paulette McKenzie Leaphart(WASHINGTON) — Paulette Leaphart, 49, is going to Washington, D.C. And she will make the entire 1,000-mile journey on foot.

Nothing will stand in her way – not even the shirt on her back. Literally.

She will walk from Biloxi, Mississippi, tomorrow completely topless, showing the evidence of her double mastectomy. Leaphart wants to talk to lawmakers about the uphill battle everyday Americans with cancer, like herself, face in trying to afford the sky-high cost of life-saving treatments. She is serious about putting health care reform front and center on the table of Capitol Hill, and this breast cancer survivor thinks she can do it.

“I’m marching to D.C. to put my scars in the face of Congress,” Leaphart told ABC News.

It was in January 2014 when her world turned upside down. Her doctor diagnosed her with stage 2, grade 3 breast cancer, and it was aggressive.

Two days before Valentine’s Day in February 2014, Leaphart underwent a double mastectomy following her doctor’s advice.

Leaphart would soon learn that breast reconstruction was not an option for her. Her doctor feared that it could further complicate her health. Every decision became a matter of life or death. Leaphart chose to live.

“I was devastated,” Leaphart said. “I was torn to pieces.”

Leaphart would be further torn apart by the costs involved. The single mom of four girls, ages 8, 13, 14 and 15, pays $1,500 every two months for her medications. She says it’s not just the cancer that kills a patient; it’s also the immense stress of worrying about how one will pay for the overwhelming medical bills.

“I lost everything fighting,” Leaphart said. “I didn’t have insurance…I lost my house. I had to sell my car. I had to sell everything that I had of value.”

“It’s ridiculous, in this country, to have to pay so much to save our lives,” Leaphart added. “I want [Congress] to do something with these high-priced prescriptions.”

According to a 2007 survey conducted by USA Today/Kaiser Foundation/Harvard School of Public Health, 33 percent of cancer patients had trouble paying medical bills and 43 percent reported skipping treatments or not filling prescriptions because of the cost.

A 2011 study by the Journal of the National Cancer Institute concluded that the cost of cancer care in the U.S. reached an estimated $125 billion in 2010, and could top $157 billion by 2020 – troubling statistics for Leaphart.

Preparing for the 1,000-Mile Walk

Leaphart has spent the last year in training for the journey to D.C. She started out taking a few steps a day. Now, she says she walks 30 miles a day for six hours – half in the morning, and the other half in the evening. She is sometimes topless. Leaphart says she also trains three days a week in the gym for three hours a day.

“People ask if I’m worried about her safety,” said Emily MacKenzie, who is directing a documentary, Scar Story, about Leaphart. “Of course…I worry about encountering people along the way who will not take kindly to the sight of a bare-chested, breast-less woman walking without shame or fear. I worry that people will be ugly to her, but, again, that’s something Paulette has faced many times and is emotionally strong enough to handle.”

There are also questions about nudity laws. Could Leaphart face arrest along her planned route from Mississippi to Alabama to South Carolina to North Carolina to Virginia and finally to Washington, D.C.?

“We printed out state by state what the laws are,” MacKenzie said. “It boils down to whether or not someone has nipples. She has no nipples or breasts.”

“It doesn’t mean that the sight of a topless woman won‘t be provocative to some people,” MacKenzie added.

ABC News senior legal correspondent Sunny Hostin said Leaphart could face legal action depending “on the law in each state that she walks through and how each state defines nudity and indecent exposure.”

“In Mississippi, North Carolina and Virginia, indecent exposure is defined as exposing ones ‘private parts.’ In Alabama, it is defined as the exposure of genitals. In Washington, D.C., it has been defined as engaging in a sexual act in public, and, finally in South Carolina, as exposing your person. Since breasts are not genitals, it would seem that she can run through Alabama. But are they considered ‘private parts’ thus becoming a problem for her in North Carolina, Virginia and Mississippi? And in South Carolina, she would be arguably ‘exposing her person.'”

“Ultimately, it would be insane for a law enforcement officer to arrest her in front of her camera crew,” Hostin rebutted. “Imagine the publicity.”

There are even more questions from those who ask if Leaphart is taking too big a leap of faith.

“We have a lot of people who have their doubts. ‘Can a person really do this’? they say,” MacKenzie admitted. “I worry about the physical strain of such a long walk. I worry about sunburns and sprained ankles, but Paulette reminds me that though any of that may happen, she’ll take it in stride, mend up and keep going.”

Leaphart isn’t worried. A host of family, friends and well-wishers will join her on the walk, and some promise to be there from start to finish. Leaphart’s story has garnered a lot of attention, at home and abroad. She even appeared in Beyonce’s musical film “Lemonade.”

“I have so many people all over the world cheering me on,” Leaphart said. “It’s been crazy.”

She wants the spotlight, however, to be on breast cancer. In 2015 there were 60,290 new breast cancer cases in the U.S. and 40,290 deaths, according to the American Cancer Society. This survivor wants to make a point along the way. On the arduous 1,000-mile trek, she wants to say, “The pink ribbon just ain’t doing it.”

“We need to tell the truth,” Leaphart explained. “There is nothing pink, and pretty, and tied up in a bow, about breast cancer.”

So, to make the point, she will set out, bearing all, undeterred and unwavering, unflinching and unyielding.

An RV will be her resting place when the sun goes down.

Leaphart admits she is going out on a limb with her plans to talk to D.C.-area politicians because she has no scheduled meetings.

“I plan to rally until they open their doors and talk to me,” Leaphart said.

You can follow her journey on her Facebook page, and donate to her cause on GoFundMe.

“She is a normal woman. She is a mom. She is a friend,” McKenzie said. “She is a woman who has such hope and such faith… What she is doing is so inspiring and beautiful.”

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