iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) — Women between the ages of 40 to 49 should get a mammography to screen for breast cancer if they’ve weighed the risks and benefits, the United States Preventative Services Task Force said in a statement.

“The group’s top level recommendations that women should begin mammogram testing at age 50 and only schedule them every two years until about age 74 have not changed,” Dr. Michael LeFevre, the immediate past chairman of the task force told ABC News. “We’ve also said in the past that the decision to start screening mammography in women prior to age 50 years should be an individual one, he added.

The group wanted to clarify their position on younger women and mammography, which he admitted might be confusing for some, said LeFevre.

“Younger women should work with their doctors to balance the pros and cons of mammography and make a determination that best fits their situation and values,” LeFevre said. “There is some small benefit but there is also some risk.”

The Task Force recommendations are based on the studies that showed giving mammograms to women every other year from ages 50 to 69 reduces breast cancer deaths by 16.5 percent over a lifetime. If screening starts at age 40 and continues every other year, there’s a 19.5 percent lifetime reduction in deaths from breast cancer. That 3 percent difference roughly translates to saving one woman’s life for every 1,000 who are screened.

At the same time screening younger women also results in a larger number of false positive tests and unnecessary procedures.

A study performed by the University of California at San Francisco found that about half of women who submit to a decade of annual mammograms will be given the harrowing news that their tests are positive when they are actually cancer-free. The women who receive false-positive results will then be subjected to further testing. One in 12 of them will undergo invasive biopsy surgery that carries the risk of complication from anesthesia, scarring and infection.

Getting the screening recommendations right is important. A new study by the National Cancer Institute projects the estimated number of women diagnosed with breast cancer to rise significantly in the coming years.

“The number of cases will be 50 percent higher in 2030 than they were in 2011,” Dr. Philip Rosenberg, one of the study’s lead authors.

Rosenberg said that the increase from 283,000 cases of breast cancer to about 440,000 cases per year in the U.S. will be fueled by a larger and older population as well as an increased rate of certain types of cancers, including some that have a greater chance of being picked up on mammography.

While the study makes no recommendations on screenings, Rosenberg said that his team’s purpose was to come up with a snapshot of what breast cancer might look like in the future.

“We hope this information will be used by the experts in treatment so they chart a better course in the coming years,” he said.

This week’s annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in Philadelphia highlights the latest, most exciting discoveries in every area of cancer research. Many of the country’s top cancer investigators attending the conference will be tweeting with the ABC News health team Tuesday at 1 p.m., ET to share their latest insights and discoveries.

Join the chat to learn and tune into our first ever live stream on Periscope. Look for it under the title “Breakthroughs in Cancer Research.”

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Purestock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Around 150,000 Americans have their first unprovoked seizure each year.

Traditionally, a first seizure would be met with a “wait and see” approach before starting a course of anti-seizure drugs.

Now, new guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society published in the journal Neurology recommend initiating medical treatment early with anti-epileptic medication.

The groups determined, after reviewing the available evidence, that beginning a medication immediately decreases the risk of having another seizure.

Without medication, researchers say there is up to a 45 percent chance of having another seizure within two years.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) – Seems like everyone’s social media feeds are full of those parents who overshare, capturing their child’s every meal, every outfit, every moment, from bath time to spit-up to #unfiltered potty pics.

Nothing seems off-limits for those who are “oversharenting.”

But now one new mom is paying the price for what one friend called a “running commentary” of her young daughter’s life.

“I’ve posted a lot of pictures of her hitting milestones, and just when she wears cute outfits,” Jade Ruthven said.

Ruthven didn’t give all the photos she was sharing a second thought, until she received a letter in the mail that slammed her for oversharing and told her to stop posting photos and updates. “She crawls off the mat, we don’t care,” and “She’s 6 months old, big deal,” are just some of what the letter said.

“I was shocked,” Ruthven said. “I felt like I was being bullied and mommy-shamed and I second-guessed myself and thought, ‘am I being a bad mom for posting all these pictures of my daughter on Facebook?’”

Ruthven is not alone. Social media is flooded with proud parent photos, marking milestones online with hastags like #pottytraining and #firststeps.

Author and mommy blogger Sarah Maizes said her bathtub babies are now temperamental teenagers, and she now regrets some of the posts she made about her children years ago. As a mommy blogger, Maizes said she wrote about things her kids did when they were little, and then when they got to middle school and started Googling themselves, her kids were mortified by what they found.

Now, Maizes said she doesn’t share as much about her kids’ daily lives as she used to, and she has her kids approve everything she posts online.

Mommy blogger and clinical psychologist Samantha Rodin said this is just one way social media is transforming parenting.

“It’s a really easy way to stay connected with people and see their kids grow up and to see what they’re doing,” Rodin said. “People don’t have that much time in their day between working, parenting, and marriage whatever, to stay in constant contact with friends.”

She posts photos of her three kids daily to thousands of followers on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.

“I don’t think very deeply before I post anything just as long it’s just a cute picture of my child. I figure I could just upload it,” Rodin said. “Even if someone posts 25 pictures a day of their kids I don’t think it’s bad. If nobody wants to see it they don’t have to see it.”

Ericka Sóuter, an editor in the news division of CafeMom, a social networking website for mothers, said sharing those little moments can make mothers feel proud, and can provide insight into what parenting actually looks like.

“It’s this messy, fun crazy world,” she said. “Embrace your crazy because every mom will tell you it’s crazy.”

But Blair Koenig said she doesn’t want to see it and she shouldn’t have to.

“I have seen everything you can imagine,” Koenig said. “Pictorials of child birth, like 25 pictures of a C-section and sometimes people will eat their placenta and sometimes they will post videos or photos.”

The anti-oversharenting crusader started her blog, “STFU, Parents,” after she got fed up with her friends’ constant updates.

“My feed was like 13 updates in a single day of a baby’s fever going up or down or having to change the baby and having to feed the baby, and it just seemed like a lot of information that was not really necessary,” Koenig said.

“A lot of it stems from I think from narcissism, some of it also stems from wanting to commiserate,” she added.

Koenig said there is a fine line between keeping your close friends and family up-to-date on your little one, and going too far.

“I don’t really think everybody needs to know about a child using the bathroom, but at the same time if you want to post about it maybe just sort of hold the reins,” she said.

As for Jade Ruthven, her baby updates are still going strong. Parents from across the globe have sent her messages of support since she first talked about the letter.

“I went back on the computer and was posting more, more pictures than ever,” she said. “Little did I know that it would go all around the world.”

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Marzia Giacobbe/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Blue Bell Ice Cream said late Monday it is voluntarily recalling all of its products nationwide over fears of Listeria contamination.

The latest recall includes all of the company’s ice cream, frozen yogurt, sherbet and frozen snacks. The announcement comes after the company found that Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough Ice Cream half-gallons produced on March 17 and March 27 contained the bacteria.

“We’re committed to doing the 100 percent right thing, and the best way to do that is to take all of our products off the market until we can be confident that they are all safe,” said Paul Kruse, Blue Bell CEO and president, in a statement posted on the company’s website. “We are heartbroken about this situation and apologize to all of our loyal Blue Bell fans and customers. Our entire history has been about making the very best and highest quality ice cream and we intend to fix this problem. We want enjoying our ice cream to be a source of joy and pleasure, never a cause for concern, so we are committed to getting this right.”

After eating ice cream products from Blue Bell Creamery at a hospital in Wichita, Kansas, between January 2014 and January 2015, five people were sickened. Three of the patients who were sickened at the Wichita hospital later died, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced in March.

Listeria monocytogenes can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headaches, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea.

The company is implementing a procedure called “test and hold” for all products made at all of its manufacturing facilities, meaning that all products will be tested first and held for release to the market only after the tests show they are safe.

The Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, manufacturing facility will remain closed as Blue Bell continues to investigate.

A full list of the states the products were distributed to is available on Blue Bell’s website.

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Santiaga/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Cuddling with a puppy or cozying up to a kitty has health benefits, but a new study suggests that household pets can also be sources of infection.

Young children, elderly people or pregnant women might well give a thought to potentially dangerous bacterial infections, including C. difficile and Campylobacter jejuni, according to a study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.

If your pet’s a reptile, amphibian, exotic animal or rodent, researchers say think even harder, as the group poses the greatest risk to humans and can transmit diseases through contaminated surfaces.

Researchers say that reptiles and amphibians are responsible for one in 10 cases of sporadic Salmonella infections in patients younger than 21.

Physicians do not regularly ask about pet contact or discuss the risks of pet-transmitted diseases, and the study highlights the need for common-sense steps: proper hand washing, discouraging face licking, avoiding exotic animals, wearing protective gear when cleaning pet habitats, and regularly scheduling veterinary visits for pets.

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Manuel Faba Ortega/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -– Melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, takes about 10,000 lives per year, and the median survival time for those diagnosed with its most severe form is a year.

Now, a new medication called Keytruda may help cut down those numbers.

In a recent study published in The New England Journal of Medicine involving those with advanced melanoma that compared Keytruda to the drug Yervoy, a commonly used medication for the disease, those taking Keytruda had a 37-percent higher chance of being alive after 12 months.

In addition to an improved survival rate, the patients taking this new drug also had fewer side effects, according to researchers.

Since the trial has lasted less than a year, researchers say it’s unknown if it will affect the survival rates for less severe forms, which can be much higher, in the same way.

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Photo by JB Lacroix/WireImage(NEW YORK) — Charlize Theron says that “choosing to be a mom in my late 30s has been really great for me. It’s given me perspective.”

The actress, 39, is mother to 3-year-old Jackson, and she recently sat down with W magazine to talk about aging and what she’s learned over the years.

“I think, like many women, I was judgmental toward women as they aged. Women, in our society, are compartmentalized so that we start to feel like we’re cut flowers and after a while we will wilt. I realize now that’s not the case—we can celebrate every age,” the Oscar winner said.

She added, “That’s my encouragement to 20-year-olds who are terrified of getting older: Don’t have a nervous breakdown and don’t hit the Chardonnay too hard. Getting older is not that bad.”

When asked if she had any advice to her 20-year-old self, she replied, “I would say, ‘Calm down.’ I was always in a rush.”

“I felt like time was going to run out. Now that I’m older, I know I’m not missing out on anything. Now, I go home, and that feels really good. When I hit 30, I realized I didn’t have to please everybody. I could actually enjoy life, which is not a bad thing at all.”

Theron recently also spoke out about how she and boyfriend Sean Penn found love and what she finds attractive about her fellow Oscar winner.

“He is hot. How do you say that in an interview? You’re a forty-year-old woman sounding like a sixteen-year-old. There’s something beautiful about that, but you lack the articulation of really saying what it’s like when somebody walks into your life and makes you see something that you really never thought you’d be able to see. If somebody had said to me, ‘This is what it will be,’ I would’ve said, ‘F*** off.’ As you can see, it makes me smile,” she told Esquire magazine.

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memorisz/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — When strokes involve a clot in one of the brain’s blood vessels, what is known as an ischemic stroke, doctors give the clot-busting chemical tPA.

The chemical saves lives, but leads to only two in five people attaining functional independence.

A new study published in The New England Journal of Medicine shows that in addition to tPA, using special tools to manually remove the clot may save function in more patients.

The study was so positive that researchers said it was cut short so other patients could benefit from the approach.

In the multicenter study, UCLA researchers gave 196 people with ischemic stroke either tPA alone or tPA followed by a manual removal of the clot.

The group who had the clot removal had a 60-percent improvement in functional outcomes, while those getting tPA alone only saw a 35-percent improvement.

While clot removal is a procedure that can only be done at specialized centers under specific conditions, researchers said this could encourage more specialization in this specific technique.

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Pierson Clair/USC Atheltics(LOS ANGELES) — When faced with losing his second eye to cancer at the age of 12, Jake Olson wanted to watch his last University of Southern California Trojans football game in person and take it all in. He got his wish and met the team.

Now a high school senior and totally blind, he may play for them.

The California teen was diagnosed with retinoblastoma when he was 1 and lost one of his eyes, ABC News reported. Although the cancer came back eight times, he was able to beat it until he was 12 in 2009. That year, doctors told him he would lose the other eye.

Though the thought of being totally blind scared him, Olson’s one wish was to see the Trojans play one last time.

“I want to take in as much as I can,” he told ABC News at the time.

USC head football coach Pete Carroll heard about it and invited Olson to practice.

“I got to sit next to Pete Carroll on the bus, which was awesome. I got to see them practice, which was awesome,” Olson said. “I got to go into the locker room and everyone was partying. It was just awesome.”

On the eve of his surgery, he was on the USC football field with the team. Carroll told him they loved him, and wanted to see him after he recovered. The next day, the Olsons sneaked his favorite player, Kris O’Dowd, into the hospital to wish him well.

“The nurse came in and gave him his IV and that’s when Jake just broke down, just emotionally broke down and his parents broke down. I broke down,” O’Dowd said. “I went up and gave him a kiss on the head and just told him, ‘You’re the strongest kid I’ve ever known and keep being who you are and everything will work out.'”

He was right.

Olson went on to write a book, Open Your Eyes to a Happier Life, and even got to play on his high school football team at Lutheran High School of Orange County.

“I was going to have to give up that dream of playing on the field,” he told ABC News last fall. “It was something that being blind you couldn’t do.”

But the coach and the rest of the team worked with Olson to figure out how he could snap the ball. Olson’s teammates clap and tap his leg to guide him.

“My heart pounds twice as fast every time,” Olson said.

This fall, he’s headed to USC on a full scholarship through Swim with Mike, which was founded at USC 35 years ago to help send disabled athletes to school. He’s one of 60 students to get a Swim with Mike Scholarship this year, 12 of whom will go to USC, Swim with Mike founder Ron Orr told ABC News.

Orr said Olson was at the annual recruitment dinner in February, and after all the new players were announced, the Trojans’ new head coach said there was “one more Trojan.” It was Olson, who isn’t an official member of the team yet, but Orr said the coach hopes to work with the NCAA to allow him to snap the ball soon.

“It was quite a moment,” Orr said. “Jake Olson got up there with his dog and brought the house down.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The 35,000 runners who line up for Monday’s Boston Marathon can expect their bodies to take quite a beating from the 26.2-mile endurance test.

“Everyone has pain,” said Dr. Lewis G. Maharam, the chairman of the International Marathon Medical Directors Association. “It’s part of the deal.”

Muscles take the brunt of the damage, he said.

Normally, the body only needs slow twitch muscle fibers to drive it forward. But for the marathon distance, the body recruits every single type of muscle fiber, including the fast twitch fibers normally only used for sprinting, he said. That uses up a lot of blood and almost all of the carbohydrate energy supplies stored in the muscles and blood.

“When you exhaust glycogen stores, the body’s preferred source of sugar, you start breaking down body fat and muscle protein,” he said. “That’s when you’re in danger of [hitting the wall].”

He added that can lead to psychological symptoms like confusion and disorientation.

But perhaps the hardest working muscle during a marathon is the heart, suggested Jason Karp, a Ph.D. exercise physiologist and author of Running a Marathon for Dummies. If you’re really pushing the pace, you can get into “cardiac drift,” where there is a sharp spike in heart rate without any change in effort, breathing or calorie burn, he said.

“It’s caused by a decrease in the heart’s stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped out per beat,” Karp said. “The heart compensates by beating faster.”

Runners who don’t hydrate properly will have thicker blood, placing extra stress on the kidneys, Karp noted. This can contribute to trouble regulating core temperature as the body is forced to choose between sending blood towards the working muscles or into a system of capillaries underneath the skin that act as a cooling system. And if the glycogen stores do fully deplete, the liver goes into overdrive breaking down protein to supply the body with an energy source, he said.

On the other hand, runners who drink too much are in danger of developing hyponatremia, an imbalance of electrolytes, Maharam said. High sodium concentrations in the blood can be so severe they lead to brain swelling.

“No one knows why, but hyponatremic runners lose their ability to remember numbers,” he said. “When you ask them where they live they can tell you the street but not the house number.”

The runners who make it to the finish line can expect some muscle soreness for up to a week, Maharam said.

“It’s by inflammation and microscopic muscle tears,” he added. “That same pounding can also cause joint pain and tightness in the tissues that connect bone to muscle.”

Running a marathon can compromise the immune system for several months afterwards, leaving marathoners susceptible to colds and infections. But most of the other effects will disappear after a drink of water and a good meal, Karp said.

So why do runners put their bodies through all this? Maharam said most runners he’s talked to expect some suffering but ultimately feel it’s worth it. And as one recent study in the journal Memory suggested, the pain of a marathon, like the pain of childbirth, is the kind of pain you forget.

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