Kosair Children’s Hospital(LOUISVILLE, Ky.) — Surgeons at Kentucky’s Kosair Children’s Hospital announced that they successfully performed a surgery to separate seven-week old conjoined twin girls last week.

According to the hospital, the girls remain on ventilators, but have gotten stronger each day. “In any situation where you have so complex a surgery, there is always a long road to recovery,” the hospital’s Chief of Cardiovascular Surgery Erle H. Austin III, M.D. said. “We are cautiously optimistic,” he added, noting that “one or both may require additional surgeries in the future.”

The hospital’s statement quotes the mother of the girls as saying that she and her family “are so thankful to God and everyone at Kosair Children’s Hospital for getting them this far.”

The girls were born joined at the chest and abdominal cavity. According to the hospital, their livers were joined and the two girls shared some of the same heart structures.

Conjoined twins happen in about one of every 200,000 live births, the University of Maryland Medical Center says. The survival rate is between five and 25 percent.

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DigitalVision/Thinkstock(WAHSINGTON) — The National Institute of Health (NIH) has announced it will permanently stop using chimpanzees for biomedical testing and is retiring its remaining chimpanzee population.

Dr. Francis Collins, director of the NIH, announced this week that its chimps would be removed from labs and relocated to sanctuaries in the U.S. The government agency had already retired 310 chimps for biomedical testing in 2013 but kept 50 “reserve” chimps on hand for research purposes.

“As a result of these numerous changes over the last few years and the significantly reduced demand for chimpanzees in NIH-supported biomedical research, it is clear that we’ve reached a tipping point,” Collins said in statement Wednesday. “I have reassessed the need to maintain chimpanzees for biomedical research and decided that effective immediately, NIH will no longer maintain a colony of 50 chimpanzees for future research.”

Wayne Pacelle, the CEO and president of the Humane Society of the U.S., said the news was heartening after the group has fought for years to stop chimpanzees from being used in medical laboratories.

“We’re elated that these highly intelligent sociable animals are on their way out of laboratories and into better living environments without any threat of people injuring or harming them for any purpose, Pacelle told ABC News.

The Human Society believes that after the NIH announcement, no chimpanzees are currently being used for biomedical testing anywhere in the globe.

The Jane Goodall Institute called the news a “good step forward,” but said more work needed to be done to ensure the animals were placed in good sanctuaries.

“We applaud this recent news that federally funded research on chimpanzees is ending and now look forward to getting all of these chimps to sanctuary,” according to a statement from the group.

The chimpanzees currently in NIH laboratories will likely be moved to Chimp Haven, a federal sanctuary in Louisiana.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The announcement by former NFL player Doug Flutie that his parents died within an hour of each other has put the spotlight on the rare “broken heart” syndrome.

While it’s unclear whether either of Flutie’s parents, whom he described as both having fatal heart attacks within an hour of each other, had that syndrome, it’s known that some people can have a severe cardiac event after going through an emotional trauma.

“My Dad had been ill and died of a heart attack in the hospital and my Mom, less than an hour later had a sudden heart attack and passed away,” Flutie wrote on Facebook. “They say you can die of a broken heart and I believe it.”

While it may seem far-fetched, having an “emotional” broken heart has been known to cause severe and sometimes fatal health effects on a person’s actual heart. Broken heart syndrome is sometimes called stress-induced cardiomyopathy, or takotsubo cardiomyopathy, according to the American Medical Association, and can strike even in people who are otherwise healthy.

Dr. Sahil Parikh, interventional cardiologist at University Hospitals Case Medical Center in Cleveland, said the condition is rare but appears to most often affect older women. Because the condition is so uncommon, he said, it’s not completely understood why the heart is affected.

“What that is, the bottom of the heart, often called the apex, is not contracting. And why that happens, no one really knows,” Parikh explained. “People think it’s an excess of hormones like adrenaline that results in stunning of the heart muscle.”

Parikh said people can be affected after an emotional experience, either good or bad.

ABC News’ Chief Health and Medical Editor Dr. Richard Besser explained that the condition was first noticed in Japan where doctors found that in rare cases people had sudden heart failure following an emotional trauma. The name takotsubo comes from a device used to catch octopuses, he said.

“With broken heart syndrome, it is felt that a surge of hormones impairs the ability of the heart muscle to pump,” Besser explained in a previous column for ABC News. “The X-ray shows a picture of an enlarged left side of the heart.”

As the heart beats abnormally, its shape is similar to the device the Japanese use to catch octopuses.

Dr. Parikh explained that most people who have the syndrome generally recover within a few days without serious lasting damage, although he urges anyone with symptoms to seek medical care immediately. In rare cases the condition can be fatal.

Symptoms of a heart attack, or broken heart syndrome, include chest paints, dizziness, sweating or arm pain. In women, symptoms may not be as pronounced, according to Parikh.

In his post, Flutie remembered his parents and thanked his supporters.

“The most important part of their 56 years of marriage was providing opportunities to their children,” Flutie continued. “They were incredible parents and Grandparents and my family and I will miss them both.

“On behalf of me and the entire Flutie family, I would like to thank you all for your well wishes and prayers during this difficult time.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — If you’re exhausted and in the need to zone out, you might actually be grabbing bits of down time called “microsleep.”

The phenomenon can occur most readily when a person is sleep-deprived, when their brain is primed to switch into sleep mode at any second. While a person can appear awake and even have their eyes open, their brain may have slipped into sleep mode, maybe reaching the first or second level of sleep.

Dr. Ilene Rosen, a sleep expert and associate professor of clinical medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, explained if a person appears “zoned out” they might actually be catching some Z’s.

“They might have been thinking about nothing,” Rosen explained. “Something brings them back to focus attention.”

Dan Childs, managing editor of ABC News’ Medical Unit, stayed up for 50 hours straight this week — 40 hours of it on the Good Morning America livestream, which was part of a slate of events to commemorate the 40th anniversary of GMA.

During that period, Dr. Steven Feinsilver at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, found evidence that Childs was slipping in and out of consciousness after just a few minutes of sitting quietly. That becomes evident when a person is hooked up to an EEG scan to look at their brainwaves.

Certain brain waves called theta waves showed how quickly a person could be “asleep,” Feinsilver said.

Microsleep episodes usually last a few seconds and the person often isn’t even aware that the microsleep occurred. It can be dangerous especially if a person is driving. A few seconds of microsleep and a person can miss a red light or not notice a curve in the road, according to the National Institutes of Health.

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Wavebreak Media/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Are you and your partner arguing about how much sex you should have to keep a happy home? A new study suggests happy couples “Netflix and chill” once per week.

According to findings published in the Social Psychological and Personality Science journal, researchers looked at 30,000 Americans over a span at 40 years to draw that conclusion. They found although happy couples usually have sex once a week, “having sex more frequently than once a week was not associated with greater well-being.”

Lead author Amy Muise said more research needs to be done to discover why once per week is ideal, but she added it may “be the frequency that people feel is enough to maintain their intimate connection.”

Still, she warned that the study only applies to established couples, not singles. She also warns that correlation may not equal causation here — in other words, as the study says, it “does not tell us whether having sex up to once a week makes couples happier, or being in a happy relationship causes people to have more frequent sex (up to once a week).”

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Stockbyte/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Animals raised with no antibiotics are less likely to contain drug-resistant “superbug” bacteria than those routinely given antibiotics, according to a new report.

Ground beef from conventionally raised cattle — which are given antibiotics to promote growth and reduce disease — were twice as likely to carry drug-resistant bacteria than that from cattle that received no antibiotics, according to findings published this week by Consumer Reports.

“Eliminating routine antibiotic use is an important step in protecting the effectiveness of these medicines for future generation,” Urvashi Rangan, Ph.D., executive director of the Food Safety and Sustainability Center at Consumer Reports, said in a statement. “Using drugs to promote growth and to compensate for hygiene problems puts everyone at risk.”

Consumer Reports said it tested hundreds of packages of meat and poultry for bacteria and antibiotic resistance over the past three years.

About 80 percent of antibiotics sold in the U.S. are given to animals raised for food production, according to Consumer Reports. Should an animal become sick on an organic farm, the animal can be treated with antibiotics but then they can no longer be designated “USDA Organic” or under the “No Antibiotic” label.

The rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been a concern for doctors and medical researchers for decades. Every year, approximately 2 million people become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. At least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections, according to the CDC, which has designated this week as the first Antibiotic Awareness Week.

The American Medical Association released a statement this week calling for increased surveillance of drug-resistant bacteria and to bring an “end to the practice of using medically important antibiotics for growth promotion in animals.”

“We are currently faced with not only a decline in the effectiveness of available antibiotics, but also a decline in the development of new antibiotics,” AMA Board Member Dr. William E. Kobler said in a statement Monday. “That’s why it is extremely important that we continue to take steps to ensure the appropriate use of antibiotics across all health care settings. It will take a coordinated, multi-sector, and multi-pronged approach to address this public health epidemic.”

In recent years, companies including Tyson, McDonald’s and Subway have pledged to reduce the use of meat raised on antibiotics. “But whether such measures will end up significantly reducing antibiotic use remains to be seen,” Gail Hansen, a veterinarian who has more than 25 years of experience in veterinary public health and infectious disease, told Consumer Reports.

“In the last few years we’ve witnessed some of the bacteria most commonly found in food — germs such as salmonella and campylobacter — become increasingly resistant to some important antibiotics,” Dr. Robert Tauxe, deputy director of the CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, said in a statement released by Consumer Reports.

Meat producers all noted that they could not comment on the specifics of the report without access to the methodology and data.

The National Chicken Council added that it believes consumers should have different choices that reflect both affordability, personal values and taste.

“The National Chicken Council believes medically important antibiotics should only be used on the farm to treat and prevent disease, and not be administered to promote growth,” it said in the statement. “We all have a role to play — including doctors and farmers — in preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics, both in humans and animals.”

The council said by December 2016, human antibiotics would only be used in chickens to address disease and not promote growth. “Whatever chicken that consumers choose to purchase with their food dollars, they can be confident in its safety … any possible bacteria, antibiotic resistant or not, is killed by proper cooking,” the council said.

The U.S. Poultry and Egg Association questioned Consumer Reports‘ use of the term “superbug,” citing the Food and Drug Administration as saying “it is inaccurate and alarmist to define bacteria to one, or even a few, antibiotics as ‘Superbugs’ if these same bacteria are still treatable by other commonly used antibiotics.” But the association added that it is working with the FDA to phase out antibiotic use.

“The poultry industry supports the responsible use of antibiotics in animal agriculture,” the association said in a statement to ABC News. “Our industry has fully cooperated with the Food and Drug Administration’s phasing out of antibiotics that are most critical to human medicine.”

The group said even though they are currently used minimally, by December 2016, “antibiotics that are important to human medicine will be used to address disease only, not to promote growth,” and will be available only via prescription.

The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association has previously been critical of Consumer Reports‘ methodology and conclusions in a related report and said that consumers can “feel confident in the overall safety of their beef.”

“Leading consumers to believe that one way of producing food — whether that’s organic, grass-fed or conventionally raised beef — is safer than another plays off of consumer emotion without giving them any real facts,” Mandy Carr Johnson, senior executive director of Science and Product Solutions for the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, said in a statement.

“As an industry, our number one priority is producing the safest beef possible and over the years, as a result of significant investments in beef safety research and technology implementation, beef is the safest it has ever been with a greater than 90 percent reduction in bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7 and significant reductions in Salmonella in recent years,” Johnson added. “The beef community continues to invest millions of dollars in developing new safety technologies with the goal of eliminating foodborne illness so that we can provide consumers with the safest, highest quality beef possible. Regardless of what type of beef consumers buy, they can feel confident in the overall safety of their beef.”

ABC News Chief Medical Editor Dr. Richard Besser explained that people wanting to avoid meat raised on antibiotics should look for the label “USDA Organic” or meat that says “No Antibiotics.”

“I think it’s going to cost a little more because they do grow faster with antibiotics, but I don’t think it’s the way to go,” Besser said.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The Food and Drug Administration announced Wednesday that it has approved NARCAN, a nasal spray used as a life-saving, emergency treatment of an opioid overdose.

Opioids include prescription medications such as oxycodone, hydrocodone and morphine, as well as the illegal drug heroin, according to the FDA.

“Drug overdose deaths, driven largely by prescription drug overdoses, are now the leading cause of injury death in the United States – surpassing motor vehicle crashes,” the FDA announced in a statement.

“Combating the opioid abuse epidemic is a top priority for the FDA,” said Stephen Ostroff, M.D., the acting commissioner of the FDA.

“We cannot stand by while Americans are dying. While naloxone will not solve the underlying problems of the opioid epidemic, we are speeding to review new formulations that will ultimately save lives that might otherwise be lost to drug addiction and overdose,” Ostroff added.

The drug was previously approved as an injection, but the nasal spray form will be eaily accessible for family members and first responders hoping to reverse an opiod overdose.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Don’t you feel that buying female sanitary products should be a basic and inexpensive thing to do? I sure do, but apparently tampons are considered a luxury item.

In fact, there’s a sales tax on tampons in all but 10 states in the U.S.

It seems very anti-modern times that as women we are effectively charged for having our periods. Many others feel the same and now, an anti-tampon tax movement is raging with increasing pressure in Europe, Australia and Canada to drop the tampon tax.

If you want to help, you can sign the petition “No Tax on Tampons” on Change.org.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — The Food and Drug Administration announced Thursday that it has approved human consumption of genetically modified salmon in the U.S.

The FDA announced that “food from AquAdvantage Salmon is as safe to eat and as nutritious as food from other non-GE Atlantic salmon and that there are no biologically relevant differences in the nutritional profile of AquAdvantage Salmon compared to that of other farm-raised Atlantic salmon.”

AquAdvantage Salmon grows twice as fast as farm-raised Atlantic salmon and therefore reaches market size much faster.

Genetically modified food is hot button issue for many groups, and some are calling for shoppers to boycott buying the fish.

“The only line of defense is the parent who gets informed and chooses not to buy GMO toxic food and feed it to their children,” Moms Across America founder Zen Honeycutt said in a statement. “Moms buy 85% of the food. If we don’t buy it they can’t sell it, regardless of the corrupt lawmaking. Moms Across America calls on all consumers to boycott GMO Salmon.”

The FDA is also releasing draft guidance on rules for labeling products made with genetically engineered or modified ingredients.

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Courtesy of Kilee Manulak(NEW YORK) — Formal dresses aren’t the typical attire for running a 5k.

For Kilee Manulak, participating in a color run 5k in her bright white wedding dress was a way to forget about a broken engagement.

Manulak had been dating her fiancé for over four years, but a week before the couple’s wedding day, he ended it all over a text message. Manulak’s friends and family didn’t let her get down on herself. A friend sent her the registration link to the Color Fun Fest 5k in Tampa Bay, Fla., where runners get doused with colored powder throughout the course of the race. When Manulak was registering for the race, something in her head clicked.

“I opened the link and everyone in the pictures was dressed in white,” said Manulak. “I was like, ‘Oh my gosh, I should do this in my dress!’”

Manulak didn’t ask her bridesmaids to wear their dresses at the race, but they insisted on it. She said she wasn’t nervous about trashing her wedding dress.

“I detached myself from the dress,” she said. “It was no longer that beautiful white dress to me. It was no longer going to be worn, now [the dress] is about friendship and support.”

Manulak’s dress will be cleaned and donated to someone else, and she hopes that her resilience will empower other people who are in a similar situation.

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