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Cambridge Archaeology Unit(PETERBOROUGH, England) — Archaeologists have uncovered a 3,000-year-old, remarkably well-preserved community near Peterborough, England.

The excavation at Must Farms, by the Cambridge Archaeological Unit, has unearthed a trove of textiles, pottery and tools that reveal new insights into the lives of our ancestors.

The community at Must Farms dates back to the end of the Bronze Age (1000-800 BC), according to the Cambridge Archaeological Unit.

The ancient settlement is especially unique in that it was apparently overtaken by a fire, causing much of the settlement to collapse into the river at which it was built. The sudden destruction, and then subsequent preservation in the river’s non-porous silt, caused many of the artifacts to be preserved incredibly well, archaeologist wrote on their online diary, documenting the findings.

The destruction and preservation have caused many to compare the site to Pompeii, the ancient Roman city preserved in volcanic ash after the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius.

“We think those living in the settlement were forced to leave everything behind,” Kasia Gdaniec, senior archaeologist of Cambridgeshire County Council, wrote on their website. “An extraordinarily rich range of goods and objects are present in the river deposits.”

Among the findings are pottery that is nearly intact, wheels, axes and decorative beads.

Although the settlement was first discovered in 1999, and a few small excavations took place in 2004 and 2006, the Cambridge Archaeological Unit’s dig is the largest and first thorough excavation done at Must Farms. Their excavation began a little less than a year ago and is nearing completed.

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iStock/Thinkstock(BRASILIA, Brazil) — Brazil’s Ministry of Justice announced on Thursday the arrest of 10 alleged ISIS recruits who the ministry says pledged allegiance to the Syria-based terror group and were discussing potential attacks during the Rio Olympics.

Authorities are seeking two additional individuals, Justice Minister Alexandre de Moraes said.

The arrests were made in a series of raids in 10 different states in Brazil, the ministry said. A spokesperson for the ministry told ABC News at least one of the arrested was under 18 years old. Moraes said no specific target was threatened and that while the threat was “minimal,” authorities would crack down hard on any suspected plot.

The arrests come just days after an alleged extremist group in Brazil, calling itself Ansar al-Khilafah Brazil, pledged allegiance to ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. It is unclear if the arrests are linked to Ansar al-Khilafah.

Recently a jihadist on the messaging app Telegram has also called for “lone wolves” to attack in various ways the Rio Olympics, which begin next month.

Following Ansar al-Khilafah’s announcement, however, several counterterrorism experts told ABC News they questioned whether the group was real. ISIS is not known to have much influence in Brazil. There are small pockets of the population that follow Islam, according to a 2010 census, but overall a tiny percentage of the nation is Muslim, much less Islamic extremists.

Only three individuals are said to have traveled from Brazil to Syria or Iraq to fight with extremist groups there, according to The Soufan Group, compared with an estimated 1,700 from France and 250 from the U.S.

As recently as last month, a former counterterrorism official told ABC News that there was “no credible ISIS-related threat to the 2016 games.”

“It’s not impossible, but ISIS has other areas in the world where it is much easier for them to operate,” the former official said.

Still, with the Rio Olympics right around the corner, Brazilian officials reportedly consider the terrorism threat high.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — Donald Trump raised doubts about whether the United States, under his leadership, would jump to the defense of its NATO allies in Europe if Russia attacked them.

When specifically asked in an interview with The New York Times Wednesday about his views of Russia, Trump said that if it attacked some of the small Baltic states, which are the most recent members of NATO, he would decide whether to come to their aid only after reviewing whether those nations “have fulfilled their obligations to us.”

NATO’s collective defense agreement requires all member countries to come to the aid of any member state that is attacked.

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg responded to Trump’s remarks with a call for unity.

“Solidarity among allies is a key value for NATO,” he told Buzzfeed. “This is good for European security and good for U.S. security. We defend one another.”

So what exactly is NATO? ABC News breaks down the organization’s history, importance and criticisms below:

What Is NATO?

NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a security alliance established in 1949 during the early days of the Cold War to counter Soviet aggression in Europe.

Now numbering 28 countries in Europe and North America, the alliance’s goal is to “safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means,” NATO’s website reads.

The organization promotes “democratic values” and encourages member nations to work together on issues of defense and security to prevent long-term conflict.

When security disputes occur, NATO advocates peaceful resolutions. But there are guidelines for how military force can be used, outlined in Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, the founding treaty of NATO.

NATO adheres to a policy of collective defense, meaning an attack on one member is considered “an attack against all.” The policy is outlined in Article 5 and has only been invoked once, after the Twin Towers in New York City were attacked on Sept. 11, 2001, and NATO members sent troops to Afghanistan.

After the Taliban fell, a United Nations Security Council resolution established the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), under NATO’s control, to stabilize the country. There were 1,044 non-U.S. NATO service members killed fighting in Afghanistan.

How Does NATO Work?

Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, each member nation is represented by an ambassador that sits on the North Atlantic Council (NAC), the alliance’s political decision-making body. The NAC meets at least once a week and is chaired by Secretary General Stoltenberg, the former prime minister of Norway.

When political decisions require the military, NATO’s Military Committee is involved in the planning and resourcing of military elements needed for an operation. While NATO has few permanent military forces, member nations can voluntarily contribute forces when the need arises.

The Military Committee is made up of the Chiefs of Defense of NATO-member countries; the International Military Staff, the Military Committee’s executive body; and the military command structure, composed of Allied Command Operations and Allied Command Transformation.

Where Is NATO Operating Right Now?

Currently, NATO’s website lists five active operations and missions: Afghanistan, Kosovo, counter-piracy off of East Africa, monitoring the Mediterranean, and supporting the African Union.

Who Pays for NATO?

NATO recommends that member countries spend 2 percent of their gross domestic product (GDP) on defense.

Currently, according to the Wall Street Journal, only five members meet that goal: the United States, Great Britain, Greece, Estonia and Poland.

Latvia and Lithuania are two Baltic states that don’t meet the target, but those countries are likely to raise their defense spending in the face of growing Russian aggression.

The United States spent the most on defense in 2014, over 3.5 percent of the GDP. That accounts for approximately 75 percent of the military spending by all NATO members, according to the WSJ.

What Is the History Behind Its Origin?

The North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949, in the aftermath of World War II and rising geopolitical tension with the Soviet Union.

NATO’s website lists three purposes for its creation: “deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of nationalist militarism in Europe through a strong North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration.”

As the Cold War settled in, NATO stood in opposition to the Soviet bloc, communist nations that allied with the Soviet Union.

In 1991, after the Soviet Union dissolved, NATO developed partnerships with former adversaries.

NATO responded to its first major crisis response operation in 1995 in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Bosnian Civil War.

More recently, NATO responded to the Libyan crisis in 2011 by carrying out airstrikes to protect civilians under attack by Moammar Gadhafi’s regime.

Is Trump Alone in His Criticism of NATO?

No. Trump isn’t the first to criticize other NATO members for contributing less than the United States.

In 2011, Defense Secretary Robert Gates called the future of NATO “dim” if other nations didn’t increase their participation in allied activities.

“The blunt reality is that there will be dwindling appetite and patience in the U.S. Congress — and in the American body politic writ large — to expend increasingly precious funds on behalf of nations that are apparently unwilling to devote the necessary resources or make the necessary changes to be serious and capable partners in their own defense,” he said.

It should be noted that Gates made these comments prior to Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and escalating regional tension there.

Trump’s criticisms of NATO are not only that member nations aren’t contributing fairly, but also that the organization itself is no longer relevant.

“I think NATO is obsolete,” Trump told ABC News in March. “NATO was done at a time you had the Soviet Union, which was obviously larger — much larger than Russia is today.”

NATO’s history is fraught with waves of criticism, often in moments of relative peace. After the fall of the Soviet Union, critics alleged that a European alliance was no longer necessary to counter communist governments. But militant nationalism was still occurring and soon NATO was put to the test with the Balkan Wars. Indeed, changing security threats have consistently pushed NATO to evolve over the past 60 years.

But NATO’s website perhaps provides the best defense of itself:

Since its founding in 1949, the transatlantic Alliance’s flexibility, embedded in its original Treaty, has allowed it to suit the different requirements of different times. In the 1950s, the Alliance was a purely defensive organization. In the 1960s, NATO became a political instrument for détente. In the 1990s, the Alliance was a tool for the stabilization of Eastern Europe and Central Asia through the incorporation of new Partners and Allies. Now NATO has a new mission: extending peace through the strategic projection of security.

This is not a mission of choice, but of necessity. The Allies neither invented nor desired it. Events themselves have forced this mission upon them. Nation-state failure and violent extremism may well be the defining threats of the first half of the 21st century. Only a vigorously coordinated international response can address them. This is our common challenge. As the foundation stone of transatlantic peace, NATO must be ready to meet it.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — As Donald Trump emerged on the stage in Cleveland on Monday night, silhouetted against bright lights with Queen’s “We Are the Champions” playing in background, the crowd went wild. But Queen did not.

In a tweet posted on Tuesday morning, the British rock band said that the playing of the song was an “unauthorised use” and “against our wishes.”

But that’s only partially true: Playing the song appears to have been perfectly legal, as ABC News has learned that the Republican National Convention did have a license that grants it access to play the song in public.

“In order to publicly perform music in a public location, you need a performing rights license,” Marc Jacobson, a music and film lawyer in New York City, told ABC News.

In this case, the rights to play songs by Queen publicly are owned by a company called BMI.

Jodie Thomas, a spokeswoman for BMI, told ABC News that the RNC has a license — called a “conventions license” — that allows it full access to the BMI musical repertoire, which includes Queen.

The Trump campaign itself has a different kind of license — a “political entities license” — which means certain songs from the BMI library are off limits. Thomas said that Queen had objected to the campaign’s use of the song, and that BMI subsequently informed the campaign that it was no longer authorized to play the song.

Thomas also noted that “the RNC is more appropriately covered by the political entities license, which we are in the process of transitioning them to,” and that in the meantime, BMI has sent a letter to the RNC “letting them know that Queen has objected to the use of their music.” She added that BMI hopes that the RNC complies.

However, “as a matter of copyright law — assuming there’s a license for public performance — they have no right to stop it,” Jacobson said.

That being said, the playing of the song is still against the wishes of Queen, and there may be other avenues that Queen, or other artists who disapprove of the use of their work, could pursue.

Lawrence Iser, a Los Angeles lawyer who represented Jackson Browne in a lawsuit against Sen. John McCain over a similar matter, told ABC News that one such avenue would be to make a claim alleging that the artist’s right of publicity had been infringed.

“Queen has the ability to claim under the right of publicity that [the RNC is] using without permission their famous voices to sell a candidate or in this case the Republican Party,” he said.

Similarly, he said that the artists may be protected by trademark law.

“It’s called a false endorsement claim under section 43a of the Trademark Act,” Iser explained. “That gives somebody who has a well-known mark — in this case it would give Queen and the band members of Queen — the right to claim that you’re using our famous identity, our famous sound, our famous song in a manner that suggests we endorse Donald Trump.”

Finally, he said, the artists could claim that the convention is unlike other performances, and thus isn’t covered by a traditional performance license.

“I would argue in this instance — as you can [with] each of the Trumps and everyone else reading from teleprompters — this is a highly scripted show with high production values,” Iser said. “That was like what you’d expect to see in Las Vegas or on Broadway … and use of a song in a scripted show requires a grand rights license”

If all else fails, Iser said, artists can publicly denounce the use of their songs by candidates, and there is likely nothing in the performance agreements preventing them from doing so.

“Generally speaking, campaigns have historically backed away when artists have come out and said, ‘Don’t use my song,’” he said.

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File photo. (iStock/Thinkstock)(SYDNEY) — A photo taken by an amateur photographer shows a whale breaching just feet from a boat off the coast of Sydney, Australia.

John Goodridge, the photographer, told ABC News that he’s 52, and has been taking pictures of whales as a hobby since just last year.

He happened to be off of work from his job at Graphic Packaging International on Tuesday and took a tour with a whale-watching agency, which is when he snapped the pic.

“There was that little boat watching another pod of whales that was off to the right,” he said. “I was kind of looking to the left of that boat … hoping that something might happen.”

The whale was only a few yards away from the side of the boat when it breached, Goodridge said.

“Probably the closest I’ve seen to a boat since I’ve been watching,” he said.

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Wesley Mann/FOX News via Getty Images(NEW YORK) — Roger Ailes, the embattled chairman of Fox News, may have forever changed the media landscape but his future — and that of Fox News — remains uncertain.

“He didn’t just create Fox News, he changed television news as a result,” said Frank Sesno, former White House correspondent and bureau chief for CNN who is now a professor at George Washington University. “One thing Roger Ailes didn’t do is groom an obvious successor.”

In the wake of allegations of sexual harassment from former Fox News anchor Gretchen Carlson, there are reports that Ailes is negotiating his exit from the company he built. Attorneys for Ailes told ABC News that while proposals have been discussed, there is no exit agreement in place. Ailes has denied all of Carlson’s allegations.

“Gretchen Carlson’s allegations are false. This is a retaliatory suit for the network’s decision not to renew her contract, which was due to the fact that her disappointingly low ratings were dragging down the afternoon lineup,” he said earlier this month.

A departure, if it does indeed happen, would mark the end of a chapter for one of the most storied and influential careers in the history of American media.

A Start in Entertainment and Politics

Ailes began his career in media by working for The Mike Douglas Show, which gave him “a keen eye for production,” said David Folkenflik, NPR’s media correspondent and author of Murdoch’s World: The Last of the Old Media Empires, about 21st Century Fox, the parent company of Fox News.

But Ailes was much more than a television producer. According to Folkenflik, Ailes was able to walk the line between entertainment and politics with ease, and “didn’t see sharp distinctions between” the two worlds.

He advised President Richard Nixon, helping the president connect with voters over the relatively new medium that was television.

“He would stage certain kinds of televised specials where [Nixon] could be seen taking questions from voters,” Folkenflik said. “It made him seem responsive, it made him seem confident.”

Ailes went on to advise Presidents Ronald Reagan in 1984 and George H.W. Bush in 1988, according to Folkenflik.

Fox News Era

In 1996, Ailes was instrumental in the launch of Fox News — a 24-hour cable channel that would come to be a heavy-hitter in the American media landscape.

“Fox set a bar, and Fox had a voice, and Fox had an audience that proved to be disaffected with the media as it existed before,” said Sesno, who is now the director of the School of Media and Public Affairs at George Washington University. “He was focused, and politics is about winning, and he brought that ethos to Fox News.”

But to some observers, Fox News’ success was built on the back of division.

Matt Sienkiewicz, assistant professor of communications and international studies at Boston College, told ABC News that “the key to Ailes’ financial success — the core contribution — was understanding that in the 21st century the news business was going to make money dividing people rather than uniting them.”

As the media environment got more competitive, “he realized that the strategy that was going to be most profitable was going to be limit your approach, pick your lane of people — in his case older, mostly white, conservatives – and lock them in,” Sienkiewicz noted.

Throughout his tenure at Fox News, the channel has enjoyed tremendous appeal with certain audiences. Even as Ailes’ alleged scandal broke, the network continued to draw viewers.

“Fox News Channel was the most-watched basic cable network for the week of July 11, both in the total day and prime-time dayparts,” said a post on the TV Newser website, which covers television ratings. “This represents the 6th consecutive weekly win for FNC, which was up 56.5 percent in total prime time viewers and up 56 percent in total day viewers compared to the same week in 2015.”

Sienkiewicz says the network’s success can be attributed to a style of news coverage that Ailes pioneered.

Ailes knew that “if you want people to watch, you have to entertain them. You can’t just inform them,” said Sienkiewicz said, adding that Ailes’ background as an entertainment producer gave him the skills needed to create a news network. “It is a fantastically successful media business.”

Succession

While 21st Century Fox maintains that Ailes is “at work,” his lawyer would not deny that negotiations for Ailes’ possible departure from the network were ongoing.

An email to a Fox News spokeswoman requesting comment on the progress of any negotiations was not immediately returned.

If Ailes does leave, it isn’t clear who could take his place.

“I assume it will be somebody who is within the organization,” said Sienkiewicz. “I would be surprised if they went outside.”

But what is certain is the politics-as-entertainment legacy that Ailes instituted won’t soon be forgotten.

“He started smash-mouth politics, and now smash-mouth is the nominee of the Republican party,” said Sesno.

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iStock/Thinkstock(ANKARA, Turkey) — Turkish authorities have announced they will temporarily stop abiding by the European Convention on Human Rights, arguing that “during times of war or serious public emergency” countries can act outside of their obligations so long as they do not violate international laws.

Turkey ratified the international treaty in 1954 and suspending it means the country would no longer have to follow its laws on torture, for example. In addition, some Turkish government officials have suggested reinstating the death penalty, which has led to criticism abroad.

This comes a day after President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said the country was implementing a state of emergency for three months following a failed coup last week.

At least 60,000 people, including members of the military, police, judges, civil servants and teachers, have been rounded up after Erdogan vowed that “all the viruses” will be “cleansed.”

Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, the United Nations high commissioner for human rights, urged Turkey in a statement to “respond [to the coup] by upholding the rule of law, by strengthening the protection of human rights and by reinforcing democratic institutions.”

He added: “In the aftermath of such a traumatic experience, it is particularly crucial to ensure that human rights are not squandered in the name of security and in the rush to punish those perceived to be responsible.”

Zeid expressed concern that a large number of judges and prosecutors were suspended and stressed the importance of respecting the presumption of innocence, due process and fair trial guarantees.

The advocacy group Amnesty International said in a statement that it was “investigating reports that detainees in Ankara and Istanbul have been subjected to a series of abuses, including ill-treatment in custody and being denied access to lawyers.”

“Those responsible for unlawful killings and other human rights abuses must be brought to justice, but cracking down on dissent and threatening to bring back the death penalty are not justice,” according to the statement.

Turkish politician Mehmet Simsek took to Twitter to assuage those who opposed the decision, pointing out that France also temporarily suspended the treaty following last year’s terror attacks in Paris.

“The state of emergency in Turkey won’t include restrictions on movement, gatherings and free press. It isn’t martial law of 1990s,” he tweeted. “I’m confident Turkey will come out of this with much stronger democracy, better functioning market economy & enhanced investment climate.”

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iStock/Thinkstock(WASHINGTON) — Jobless claims were slightly lower week, decreasing by just 1,000, according to the latest figures released Thursday by the Labor Department.

For the week ending July 16, the number of people filing for benefits fell from an unrevised level of 254,000 the previous week to 253,000, marking the 72nd consecutive week initial jobless claims came in below 300,000. It’s the longest streak since 1973, the Labor Department says.

The Labor Department said there were no “special factors” impacting that week’s figures.

The four-week moving average decreased by 1,250 to 257,750.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) — Donald Trump raised doubts about whether the United States under his leadership would come to the aid of its NATO allies in Europe in the event of an attack by Russia, in an interview with The New York Times on Wednesday.

When specifically asked about his views of Russia, the newly-minted Republican nominee said that if that country attacked some of the small Baltic States, which are the most recent members of NATO, he would decide whether to come to their aid only after reviewing whether those nations “have fulfilled their obligations to us.” NATO’s collective defense agreement requires all member countries to come to the aid of any member state that is attacked.

Trump also said during the interview that as president he would question the security agreements the United States currently has with the 28 members of NATO, and that he’d pull back troops deployed around the world, citing economic reasons.

“We are spending a fortune on military in order to lose $800 billion,” Trump said to The Times. “That doesn’t sound very smart to me.”

Trump elaborated on his foreign policy plans in the interview, saying the United States has to “fix our own mess” before trying to influence the behavior of other countries.

“Look at what is happening in our country,” he told The Times, referring to the recent mass shooting of Dallas officers earlier this month. “How are we going to lecture when people are shooting policemen in cold blood?”

Throughout Trump’s year-plus long campaign, he has advocated to “Make America Great Again,” and has bucked the Republican establishment by promising to “rip up” free trade deals with Mexico and Canada.

However, he told The Times that he’d like to continue existing agreements only if U.S. allies “stopped taking advantage” of Americans.

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Walmart(NEW YORK) — Wal-Mart is getting a head start on removing chemicals from a number of its products.

In an effort to get ahead of household chemical regulations signed into law last month by President Barack Obama, Wal-Mart will ask suppliers to remove an array of chemicals from all products. The Wal-Mart request includes removing those chemicals from beauty products, which is an argument not yet heard by the Senate.

The company provided a list of the chemicals that it has asked suppliers to remove from products, including a number of solvents and preservatives.

The chemicals Wal-Mart says it will remove from its products include:
– Toluene
– Dibutyl Phthalate
– Diethyl Phthalate
– Nonylphenol Exthoxylates
– Formaldehyde
– Butylparaben
– Propylparaben
– Triclosan

Wal-Mart says that suppliers have already removed 95 percent of the chemicals by weight, and that they will continue to work with suppliers to eliminate potentially harmful chemicals.

The Environmental Defense Fund said in a blog post Wednesday that Wal-Mart “has made major strides regarding the commitments set forth in its policy,” and that the company “has set in place effective systems to measure and track progress over time.”

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